Prescribed Ecological Burns
Oakland Township Parks and Recreation
Many ecosystems are vitally linked to fire. Historically, fire was a common feature of the Midwest landscape. Prairies, wetlands, and woodlands burned with some frequency. As people more densely settled our area, fires were extinguished before they could spread. These actions disrupted the natural disturbance patterns. By reintroducing fire we are reintroducing a natural process.
Benefits of burning
Intact prairies, wetlands, and woodlands are rich with a diversity of plant and animal life. However, with the cessation of fire we have allowed many fire-intolerant, non-native plant species to out-compete the native, fire-adapted plants. With heavy competition from non-native plants, our natural areas have a tendency to become thickets of shrubs or weeds with very little diversity. Fire controls the invasion of undesirable plants by stimulating native fire-adapted plants to spread. It simultaneously kills many woody and non-native plants that would otherwise take over these sites. Fire enriches the soil and lengthens the growing season by raising the ground temperature as well. Fire allows diverse, native plant and animal communities to thrive in our natural areas.
What is involved?Preparations
Prior to the occurrence of a burn a prospective site is assessed completely. Detailed maps are prepared showing areas targeted for burns, where firebreaks will be located, and neighborhoods in which people might see or smell smoke. A burn plan is prepared for the area providing detailed information on the specific ecological benefits of burning, ideal weather conditions, ignition pattern, number of people and equipment needed, and emergency phone numbers. Such a plan is called a ‘burn prescription’. City and township fire marshals review the prescriptions and approve them before burns are conducted.
In order to fill a burn prescription, we must wait. Weather conditions - temperature, wind direction and strength, humidity, barometric pressure, and ground moisture - all must be within the range specified in the prescription before we proceed.
Are burns safe?
Well-equipped, fully trained staff and volunteers conduct the burn.
A prescribed burn will produce some air pollutants, but more significantly, the fire restores the fire-adapted ecosystem, which in turn has a greater capacity to remove CO2 from the atmosphere and produce oxygen. Emissions from burns are significantly less than those produced from mowing a comparably sized site.
During the burn, most animals find cover by retreating to burrows, flying away or moving to surrounding areas. Animal habitat is generally improved as a result of fire - stimulating a diverse, healthy, natural community.
The local fire department is notified at the beginning and end of each burn, and a cellular phone and several two-way radios are carried by staff conducting a burn. If anything unexpected does occur, staff and outside resources are notified and respond immediately. Additionally, an ample number of portable water tanks and a water truck are present at a burn site. An area to be burned is also surrounded by a non-combustible strip of ground, called a “burn break,” which contains the fire.
Burned areas re-green very rapidly. Solar heat absorbed by the blackened surface warms soil quickly. Plants respond by vigorously sprouting and sending up shoots. It is amazing to visit these areas periodically after a burn and witness the fast rate of new plant growth and the appearance of long dormant plants not in evidence prior to the burn.